Recently, the Committee decided to open up to new categories such as cultural landscapes and routes, industrial heritage (for example, this year, Ivrea, the industrial city of the 20th century, in Italy), deserts, marine sites coastal and small island sites, so that the list is more diverse and more representative of World Heritage. The sites proposed for inscription must meet at least one of the ten selection criteria, such as, for example, representing a masterpiece of human creative genius, testifying to an exchange of influences during History, to bear exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a living or extinct civilization, or else to represent natural phenomena of exceptional beauty and aesthetic importance or, of course, to be eminently representative examples of ecological and biological processes …
Italy is the country with the largest number (54), followed by China (53), Spain (47), France (44), Germany (44), and finally, Mexico (35).

China: Fanjingshan, a very rare ecosystem
South Korea: the Sansa, mountain Buddhist monasteries
France: the Chaine des Puys Tectonic High Place – Limagne Fault
Indonesia: Heritage of the Ombilin coal mine in Sawahlunto
Australia: Budj Bim Cultural Landscape
Colombia: Chiribiquete National Park and “The Maloca of the Jaguars”
Czech Republic: Landscape of breeding and training of ceremonial carriage horses in Kladruby nad Labem
China: Archaeological ruins of the city of Liangzhu
Turkey: Göbekli Tepe and its mysterious temple
Laos: Xieng Khouang Megalithic Jar Sites – Plain of Jars
Burkina Faso: Ancient iron metallurgy sites
Denmark: Aasivissuit-Nipisat, Inuit hunting grounds
Azerbaijan: Historic Center of Sheki with the Khan’s Palace
Oman: the ancient city of Qalhat
India: City of Jaipur, Rajasthan
South Africa: the mountains of Barberton Makhonjwa
Bahrain: Tombs of the Dilmun culture
Canada: Writing-on-Stone / Áísínai’pi
Germany: the border archaeological complex of Hedeby and the Danevirke
Japan: Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Set: Ancient Japanese Burial Mounds
Spain: the caliphal city of Medina Azahara
Spain: Cultural Landscape of Risco Caido and the Sacred Mountains of Gran Canaria
Italy: The Prosecco Hills of Conegliano and Valdobbiadene
Iran: The Sasanian Archaeological Landscape of the Fars Region
Mexico: the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley and its original habitat in Mesoamerica
The 20th Century Architectural Works of Frank Lloyd Wright
Iraq: Babylon
Myanmar: Bagan
United Kingdom: Jodrell Bank Observatory
Czech Republic: Mining region Erzgebirge/Krušnohoří
Poland: Prehistoric striped flint mining region of Krzemionki
Portugal: Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte in Braga
Korea: Seowon, Korean Neo-Confucian Academies
Portugal: Mafra Royal Building – Palace, Basilica, Convent, Cerco Garden and Hunting Park (Tapada)
Russia: Churches of the Pskov School of Architecture
Iceland: Vatnajökull National Park – the dynamic nature of fire and ice
China: Migratory bird sanctuary along the coastline of the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Gulf
France: French Southern Lands and Seas
Brazil: Paraty and Ilha Grande – culture and biodiversity


Some curious expressions


— A Portuguese doesn’t have a problem, in fact, he’s ‘feito ao bife’ (made to the steak).

— A Portuguese doesn’t tell you to leave him alone, he tells you ‘vai chatear o Camões’ (go and bother Camões).

— A Portuguese doesn’t tell you he’s sexy, he tells you ‘é boa como o milho’ (it’s good as corn).

— A Portuguese does not repeat what he says, he ‘vira o disco e toca o mesmo’ (turns the record and plays the same).

— A Portuguese is never bored, he just ‘fica com os azeites’ (stays with the olive oil).

— A Portuguese doesn’t have much experience, he has ‘muitos anos a virar frangos’ (many years turning chickens).

— A Portuguese doesn’t get out of trouble, he ‘sacode a água do capote’ (shakes the water out of his cloak).

— A Portuguese is not in a desperate situation, he has ‘água pela barba’ (water by the beard).

— A Portuguese doesn’t get angry, he ‘vai aos arames’ (goes to the wires).

— A Portuguese who changes his mind easily is an ‘troca-tintas’ (ink-changer).

— A Portuguese is not brazen, he ‘tem lata’ (has can).

— A Portuguese does not refuse to give information, he ‘fecha-se em copas’ (closes himself in hearts).

— A Portuguese doesn’t die, he ‘estica o pernil’ (stretches his ham).

— A Portuguese does not pretend to be deaf, he ‘faz orelhas moucas’ (makes his ears deaf).

— A Portuguese does not say that everything is suspended indefinitely, he says that ‘ficou tudo em águas de bacalhau’ (everything was left in codfish water).

— A Portuguese doesn’t say ‘It’s indifferent to me’, he says ‘Não me aquece nem me arrefece’ (Neither warms or colds me).

— A Portuguese person did not go through difficult situations, he ‘passou as passas do Algarve’ (passed the raisins of the Algarve).

Censer of Santiago de Compostela

An unforgettable spectacle! Do you know what the real reason is?
It all started when the clergy of Santiago de Compostela Basilica felt pity for the way the poor pilgrims, their great most, spent the night before the religious ceremonies in honor of Santiago: snuggled together, out in the open, in the rain, and to the cold. So it was decided that they could shelter inside the
Basilica. Of course, the scent inside it was almost unbeatable, there were times of little or no personal hygiene, pilgrims arrived at the Basilica after many kilometers made on foot, sweaty, with dirty clothes, etc. To fight this smell someone remembered that it would be convenient to fill the Basilica with the smell of incense. But, as the main nave is majestic, only a monumental incense burner would fulfill the intended objectives. Hands to work, a giant incense burner, a system of ropes that would allow you to swing it and call this exercise has another ceremony of praise to Santiago de Compostela!
And so was born the giant incense burner used on pilgrimage days to Compostela… As I say, History is made of the sum of little stories…

For those who have never seen it… and for those who have seen it, remember!

The Man and the Machine

The lever, perhaps the 1st mechanism or mechanical device used by Man.
The bow and arrows have been around for 15,000 years.
The principle of the machine-ouutil begins with the potter’s lathe, around 3500 BC.
The 1st plows date back to 3500 BC.
Pulled by an animal, the plow removes with its central punch the surface layer of the soil, on either side of the furrow.
The wheel was invented in Eurasia c.3500 BC.
With wheels, you can make cars.
The shadoof is a weighing device for lifting water, Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium BC.
Spoke wheels appear c. 2000 BC
The 1st known catapults appear in the 1st Persian Empire in the 6th century. B.C.
The Flying Pigeon in wood d’Archytas de Tarento is the 1st automaton in history, capable of flight (400 BC).
The Flying Pigeon d’Archytas probably ran on compressed air or steam.
The Endless Screw by Archimedes c. 250 BC, is still used today.
Archimedes is perhaps the greatest scientist of antiquity (geometry, hydrostatics, mechanics, etc.).
The Noria was invented by the Greeks (3rd century BC). Left image: Noria using a stream of water. / Right image: To raise water from the wells, an animal pulled the wheel..
The Antikythera mechanism is the oldest known astronomical calculator (c. 200 BC).
Reconstituted in 3D, the Antikythera mechanism reveals the complexity of its dozens of bronze cogs.
The astrolabe has been known since Greek times.
The astrolabe is an astronomical instrument measuring the position of the stars to determine the time of day and night.
Allowed navigation at sea, before the invention of the sextant.
Present in Greco-Roman times, the plough is distinguished from the plow by a punch in reverse, which returns the land to one side.
The water mill has been around since antiquity.
The windmill has been used in Persia for irrigation since the year 620.
The spinning wheel was invented in Asia in the 16th century.
The spinning wheel is an instrument used to spin wool twisting its fibers.
The counterweight trebuchet appears at the beginning of the 12th century.
The released lintel, requested by the counterweight, rises to the vertical and propels the projectile with force.
The first cannons or bombards Inaugurated in the Hundred Years’ War, 15th century.
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), a visionary genius: plane, helicopter, submarine, tank, etc.
Peter Henlein is perhaps the inventor of the clock (1508).
In 1666, Isaac Newton created the first mirror telescope.
Denis Papin is known for his steam engines. Left image: 1679: The digester. Pressure cooker predecessor Right Image: 1690: The 1st steam piston cylinder.
Submarine «Urinator», built by Denis Papin in 1692.
In 1712, the 1st steam engine by Newcomen and Savery, to pump water in the coal mines.
In 1714, the 1st brevet of a typewriter by the Englishman Henry Mill.
The modern sextant invented in the 1730s.
The sextant allows you to determine the latitude of a place by measuring the angle between the horizon and a star.
The history of robotics begins in 1737 with Vaucanson’s first automaton: the flute player.
In 1739, Vaucanson presents a copper automaton with more than 4,000 pieces: the eater duck.
The Vaucanson duck drinks, eats, quacks, walks in the water and digests like a live duck.
In 1770, Cugnot creates the 1st automobile vehicle, powered by a steam engine.
In 1789, Doctor Guillotin did not invent the guillotine, but generalized its use to all convicts.
Tabitha Babbitt invents the circular saw in 1812.
In 1825, Marc Seguin built the 1st large suspension bridge in Europe.
1830: Barthélemy Thimonnier, invents the sewing machine.
In 1832, Samuel Colt deposits a brevet for his revolver.
In 1832, Joseph Plateau invents the phenakistiscope, which is a 1st step towards the invention of cinema.
The 1st programmable calculator was invented in 1834 by the Englishman Charles Babbage.
1852: Henri Giffard invents the 1st dirigible balloon.
In 1859, Gaston Planté invents the electric accumulator (lead battery).
The 1st vacuum cleaner. Invented in 1860 by Daniel Hess.
In 1861, Richard Jordan Gatling invents the machine gun.
In 1861, Gustave de Ponton d’Amécourt built a prototype: the «propeller» and invents the word helicopter.
In 1869, Perreaux et Michaux invented the motorcycle, equipped with a steam engine.
In 1871, Alphonse Pénaud, invents the Planophoro, the 1st reduced model of a rubber motor plane.
In 1872, Dr François Merry Delabost invented the hygienic shower for French prisons.
1878: Thomas Edison, inventor of the phonograph.
1,093 patents were awarded to Thomas Edison (1847-1931) prolific inventor and pioneer of electricity.
In 1881, Gustave Trouvé invents the 1st electric vehicle in the world, a tricycle.
Between 1864 and 1902, Gustave Trouvé is the author of many inventions. Upper left image: Airship mockup / Down left image: Electric canoe / Upper right image: Military telegraph / Down right image: Mechanical bird.
In 1884, Eugène Poubelle invents the garbage container.
Josephine Cochrane is considered the inventor of the 1st dishwasher in 1886 (Illinois).
In 1896, Jules Carpentier invented the Maltese cross, a mechanism allowing to transform a continuous rotation movement into a step rotation.
In 1903, Mary Anderson invents the controlled windscreen wiper from the inside of the vehicle.
In 1910, Henri Fabre invents the seaplane.
In 1914, Pyotr Shilovsky invents the gyrocar, a 2-wheeled vehicle with gyroscope balance.
Carl Magee is the inventor of the parking meter in 1935.
In 1947, Mikhaïl Kalachnikov invented the AK-47 assault rifle.
The corkscrew. It was only invented in the 17th century!
The End.

Taken from the PowerPoint “MG O Homem e a Máquina”. Author: Patagon Diaporama

Death to 2021

Here’s a film that, with an excellent dose of irony, some idiocy, and a good deal of barbs for society, gives us a summary of the year 2021.
For me, it felt like 2021 got by running, but as I reviewed some of the events, I realized that it was much longer than I initially realized.
Nonetheless, if you want a 2021 retrospective with intelligence and humor, I strongly recommend this film (or is it a mini-film)?!…

The Velvet Underground

Whether you like or hate them, The Velvet Underground documentary it’s a piece of art!

History is exposed in this doc, not only the bands but also the 60’s explosion of art in its most ubiquity… The caldron that fostered miscegenation of arts was presented in the form of a unique band, The Velvet Underground!

To find the roots of alternative music in all its aspects within this doc!

Sunday morning, brings the dawn in
It’s just a restless feeling by my side
Early dawning, Sunday morning
It’s just the wasted years so close behind

Lou Reed & John Cale

A place in Peru

In a place in Peru, there is a surprising landscape of salt terraces, they are “Las Salinas de Maras”.
Their exploitation is as old as the Inca empire and they are located on the side of a hill in the “Sacred Valley”. The name of the salt flats in Quechua is Kachi Raqay and it is made up of about five thousand pools of about 5 square meters each, the water is filtered in the pools and evaporates by the action of the intense sun, causing the crystals of coarse salt to sprout. After 1 month the salt reaches 10 cm tall and has to be harvested.
In one part of Peru, there are some islands built with totora, where a community lives whose origins date back to times before the Incas: they are the Floating Islands of San Pedro de Kapi in Lake Titicaca, home to the Uros. They are located in the Bay of Puno and there are about 20. Each one is inhabited by 3 to 10 Uro-Aymara families, who build and roof their houses with reed mats, as well as make the islands. The Uros call themselves kotsuña, “the lake people”, and maintain the tradition of artisanal fishing, especially karachi and silverside, as well as hunting wild birds.
In a place in Peru, there is a place of visual magnificence: it is the Cordillera Huayhuash, legendary for being the source of the mighty Amazon. It has peaks that rise above 6,600 m, the Huayhuash is a compact range of 20 main mountains knotted by the blue of the glacial ice and beautiful lakes. It is considered the best place in the world for Andean trekking. A trip around the entire circuit is 170 kilometers of hard walking.

Photography: own and from the internet

Taken from a PowerPoint design by: Eliza