In early 2020, the 35th anniversary of “We Are The World” was celebrated. A song that was idealized by Michael Jackson and Lionel Richie, recorded in January 1985 by 45 of the biggest names in North American music, in the project known as USA For Africa.
Watch the video and see how the singers are doing … some have already left us!
Until 1910, the head of state in Portugal had the title of King of Portugal and of the Algarves, D’Áquem and D’Álem Mar in Africa, etc. That same year, after the republican coup d’état, the Kingdom of Portugal was abolished, but interestingly, by mistake, they did not abolish the Kingdom of the Algarve, so, presumably, it would still be in the current constitutional order.
Since the Algarve is an admittedly Portuguese province at least since the reign of D. Afonso III, why was it never formally included in the Kingdom of Portugal?
The Muslims’ Al-Gharb was not just the Algarve with today’s borders. The Al-Gharb of Al-Andalus went from Coimbra (Kulūmriyya) to the borders of the Algarve today. At that time the Algarve was already a kingdom, in fact Silves (Xelb) was the capital of that kingdom and the Islamic Algarve of the time reached a high cultural and economic splendor that had been growing since Roman times.
The great Christian achievement that the history of Portugal tells us breaks with the reality of what was the Algarve at the time, and with what really happened. For more than five centuries (c. 711-1249), under the domination of Islamic, Arab and drinking peoples, Christianity also existed among the population of the Algarve. Mozambicans and Christians lived for centuries under Muslim governments.
D. Afonso I (first king of Portugal), never set foot on the lands of the Algarve today, it was his son, D. Sancho I who in 1189 conquered Silves and proclaimed himself King of Silves and the Algarve, however he lost Silves to the Arabs in 1191, also losing the title. We could see that there was interest on the part of the kings in the conquest (reconquest), for the simple reason of increasing their kingdom, but the order of conquest was given by the Popes, and the Portuguese killed in the name of God.
It took five Portuguese Kings and the help of the Crusaders to, for more than a century of wars, conquer Al-Gharb from Muslims, from 1139 to 1249 (One hundred and ten (110) years). Even, from 1189 of the conquest of the great City of Silves by D. Sancho I, until 1249 of the conquest of D. Afonso III, it took seventy-eight years (78 years) to conquer the borders of today’s Algarve (the raisins of the Algarve).
After the King of Leon and Castile conquered Seville in November 1248, he made D. Afonso III take the decision to launch the last offensive to the south. Both Kings of Spain and Portugal coveted these rich lands of Al-Gharb. In the spring of 1249 Portuguese troops arrived in the coastal city of Santa Maria de Faro. There were no attacks or bloody invasions. D. Afonso III made only one agreement with the Moors, establishing the following: he gave them the same laws in all matters, they could keep their houses and their assets and the King promised, to defend them and help them against other invaders. Those who wanted to leave could go freely and take their goods. Moorish horsemen who remained would become his vassals, and would respond when called, and the King should treat them with honor and mercy.
It was in this way that D. Afonso of Portugal and the Algarve “attacked” Faro. At the end of 1250, the last Muslim bastions, in Porches, Loulé and Aljezur surrender and accept the Portuguese alliance (it is not for nothing that a Christian king [D. Afonso III] and a Muslim still exist in the coat of arms of the Algarve cities).
Contemporary Portuguese authors and historians have always devalued the records of the true reconquest, causing history to be marked by a brave and victorious Portuguese conquest, by Moors who fled, and bloodbaths (an untrue story). The Spanish Kings considered that the Kingdom of the Algarve belonged to them because the King of Al-Gharb, Musa ibn Mohammad ibn Nassir ibn Mahfuz, Amir de Nieba, made a vassalage to King Afonso X of Spain. D. Afonso III married the daughter of the King of Spain, Dame Beatriz de Castela in 1253 with the intention of creating a bond of alliance (even married to Dame Matilde of Bologna). Only in 1267, with the Treaty of Badajoz, D. Afonso X de Leão e Castela granted the King of Portugal the Kingdom of the Algarve, making his grandson, D. Dinis, the heir to the Throne of the Algarve.
D. Dinis in 1293 created a market exchange with an interest in exports. Wine and dry fruits from the Kingdom of the Algarve were sold to Belgium and England, that’s how the idea for discoveries began to develop.
In 1415 the infants of Portugal invaded the city of Ceuta with the same vision of the “reconquest”, but with more reasons. The conquests in North Africa led the Kingdom of the Algarve to be called, from 1471 as Kingdom of the Algarve, and the first king to use the title was King D. Afonso V of Portugal and of the Algarve, d ‘Aquém and d’Além-Mar in Africa. It is not that there were two Algarves, but just one, with two territories (the one from here, and the one from over there on the sea). What actually existed was just an expansion of the Kingdom of the Algarve beyond the sea, since the Kingdom of Portugal ended up in the Alentejo.
The Kingdom of the Algarve in the history of Portugal is almost non-existent, most of the Algarve and Portuguese have never heard of this kingdom. There are authors who say that the Kingdom of the Algarve was in no way different from the rest of Portugal, but it is not so true. It is true that the laws of Portugal were for the Algarve, but they did not, and do not, have other habits and other customs, other traditions, making this land a great multi-cultural estate that is unmatched in any other land in Portugal .
The Kingdom of the Algarve was not an autonomous kingdom it is true, it was semi-autonomous separated by the Algarve hills, by the will of the Portuguese kings themselves (always appointing a governor for this royal Kingdom) and by an alliance with the citizens and Castile kings. Certain authors say that no Portuguese king was crowned or hailed as being only King of the Algarve, it is true, however the Portuguese Kings themselves wanted it to remain another kingdom apart, and these authors still forget that who founded the Kingdom of the Algarve were not the Portuguese kings. The only time that the Kingdom of the Algarve was abolished was in 1773 by D. José I (influences of the Marquis of Pombal), but his daughter, Queen D. Maria I, restores it.
The Kingdom of the Algarve encompassed all the African territories of the kings. We can also look at the island of Madeira as part of that kingdom, all the more so because D. Duarte donated to his brother Infante D. Henrique (Governor of the Kingdom of the Algarve), the archipelago of Madeira. Being extremely ironic, Madeira Island today is an autonomous (or semi-autonomous) region and the Algarve is not. What has always existed in Portugal was a United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarve, as it still is today in Great Britain, with England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, united. Later in 1815 the Kingdom of Brazil was also part of that united kingdom (however Brazil’s independence is proclaimed in 1822).
The Kings of Leon and Castile (Spain) also used titles such as Kings of the Algarves, in fact, even today this happens. King Filipe VI is King of the Algarves due to the Spanish monarchical constitution of 1978.
In 1910, with the coup d’état on the part of the republicans, the 1st Portuguese Republic was proclaimed, in which the Kingdom of Portugal was abolished. Portuguese Republicans, however, forgot to abolish the Kingdom of the Algarve.
O peixe é vendido pelos pescadores nas lotas, em leilões «invertidos», ou seja, com os preços a serem rapidamente anunciados por ordem decrescente, até que o comprador interessado o arremate com o tradicional «chiu!». Isto implica que o melhor peixe, e o mais caro, é o que é vendido primeiro, ficando para o fim o de menor qualidade. Em tempos anteriores ao transporte automóvel, as peixeiras menos escrupulosas compravam esse peixe no fim da lota, por um preço baixo, e corriam literalmente até à vila ou cidade, tentando chegar ao mesmo tempo que as que tinham comprado peixe melhor e mais caro na lota (e tentando vendê-lo, evidentemente, ao mesmo preço que o de melhor qualidade). Nem sempre os fregueses se deixavam enganar, e percebiam que aquele carapau era «carapau de corrida», comprado barato no fim da lota e transportado a correr até à vila. Hoje ainda, o que se arma em carapau de corrida, julga-se mais esperto que os outros, mas raramente os consegue enganar.
Walking through the streets of Barcelona, I suddenly discovered the terrible truth – Europe died in Auschwitz…
We killed six million Jews and replaced them with 20 million Muslims.
At Auschwitz we burned a culture, thinking, creativity, talented.
We destroyed the chosen people, truly chosen because they produced great and wonderful people who changed the World.
The contribution of these people is felt in all areas of life: science, art, international trade and, above all, as awareness of the World.
These were the people we burned.
And under the presumption of tolerance and because we wanted to prove to ourselves that we were cured of the disease of racism, we opened the door to 20 million Muslims who brought us stupidity and ignorance, religious extremism and lack of tolerance, crime and poverty, due to reluctance to work and proudly support their families.
They blew up our trains and moved our beautiful Spanish cities to the 3rd world, drowning them in filth and crime.
They lock themselves in apartments that they receive free of charge from the government, planning the killing and destruction of their naive guests. And this, to our dismay, we exchanged culture for fanatical enmity, creative ability for destructive ability, intelligence for regression and superstition.
We exchanged the search for peace for Europe’s Jews with their talent for a better future for their children, their determined attachment to life because life is sacred, for those who seek death for people consumed by the desire for death for themselves and for others, for our children and theirs.
What a terrible mistake was made by poor Europe.
Great Britain recently debated removing the holocaust from the school curriculum because it offends the Muslim population who claims it never existed.
It hasn’t been removed yet.
However, it is a frightening omen of the fear that is taking over the world and how easy it is for each country to give in to that fear.
About seventy years passed after the Second World War.
This email is being sent as a chain in memory of the six million Jews, twenty million Russians, ten million Christians and nineteen hundred Catholic priests who were murdered, raped, burned, starved, beaten, made guinea pigs for experiments and humiliated.
Now, more than ever, with Iran among others denying the holocaust, which they say is a myth, it is imperative to make “the World never forget”.
This mail aims to reach 400 million people.
Be another link in the memory chain and help distribute it around the world.
How many years will pass after the attack on the World Trade Center before they say it never happened because it offends Muslims in the United States?
If our Judeo-Christian heritage offends Muslims, it is time to pack up and move to Iran, Iraq or any other Muslim country.
Please, do not destroy this message; it will only take a minute to review. We have to wake up America (and the rest of the World …) before it’s too late.
(A copy of an article written by Sebastian Vilar Rodríguez, a Spanish writer, published in a Spanish newspaper. It doesn’t take much imagination to associate the message with the rest of Europe, possibly the rest of the world.)
The first nation in Latin America to use steam engines and boats was Cuba, in 1829.
The first nation in Latin America and the third in the world (after England and the USA), to have a railroad was Cuba, in 1837.
It was a Cuban who first applied ether anesthesia in Latin America in 1847.
The first worldwide demonstration of an electricity-powered industry was in Havana in 1877.
In 1881, it was a Cuban doctor, Carlos J. Finlay, who discovered the yellow fever transmitting agent and defined its prevention and treatment.
The first electrical lighting system in all of Latin America and Spain was installed in Cuba in 1889.
Between 1825 and 1897, 60 to 75% of all gross income that Spain received from abroad came from Cuba.
Before the end of the 18th century, Cuba abolished bullfighting because it considered them “unpopular, bloodthirsty and abusive to animals”.
The first “electric car” that circulated in Latin America was in Havana in 1900.
Also in 1900, before in any other country in Latin America, it was to Havana that the first car arrived.
The first city in the world to have direct dial phones (no operator needed) was Havana, in 1906.
In 1907, the first X-ray machine in Latin America was released in Havana.
On May 19, 1913, Cubans Agustin Parla and Rosillo Domingo, who first flew across Latin America, between Cuba and Key West, lasted an hour and forty minutes.
The first country in Latin America to grant a divorce was Cuba, in 1918.
The first Latin American to win a world chess championship was the Cuban, José Raúl Capablanca. He won all the 1921-1927 world championships.
In 1922, Cuba was the second country in the world to open a radio station and the first country in the world to broadcast a music concert and make radio news.
The first radio announcer in the world was a Cuban: Esther Perea de la Torre. In 1928, Cuba had 61 radio stations, 43 of them in Havana, ranking fourth in the world, second only to the USA, Canada and the Soviet Union. Cuba was the first in the world in number of stations by population and territorial area.
In 1937, Cuba was the first country in all of Latin America to decree an 8-hour working day, the minimum wage and university autonomy.
In 1940, Cuba was the first country in Latin America to have a black president, elected by universal suffrage, by an absolute majority, when the majority of the population was white. Therefore, the United States advanced in 68 years.
In 1940, Cuba approved one of the most advanced constitutions in the world. In Latin America, it was the first country to grant women the right to vote, equal rights between sexes and races, as well as the right of women to work.
The feminist movement in Latin America first appeared in the late thirties in Cuba. It anticipated Spain by 36 years, which will only grant Spanish women the right to vote, the possession of their children, as well as being able to obtain a passport or have the right to open a bank account without her husband’s authorization, after 1976.
In 1942, a Cuban became the first Latin American musical director of a worldwide film production and also the first to receive an Oscar nomination. His name: Ernesto Lecuona.
The second country in the world to broadcast on TV was Cuba in 1950. The biggest stars in all of America went to Havana to play on their television channels.
The first hotel to have air conditioning in the world was built in Havana: the Hotel Riviera in 1951.
The first building constructed in reinforced concrete in the world was in Havana: O Focsa, in 1952.
In 1954, Cuba had one head of cattle per inhabitant. The country ranked third in Latin America (after Argentina and Uruguay) in meat consumption per capita.
In 1955, Cuba is the second country in Latin America with the lowest infant mortality rate (33.4 per thousand births).
In 1956, the UN recognized Cuba as the second country in Latin America with the lowest illiteracy rates (only 23.6%). Haiti’s rates were 90% and those of Spain, El Salvador, Bolivia, Venezuela, Brazil, Peru, Guatemala and the Dominican Republic were 50%.
In 1957, the UN recognized Cuba as the best country in Latin America in terms of number of doctors per inhabitant (1 per 957 inhabitants), with the highest percentage of homes with electricity, after Uruguay, and the highest number of calories ( 2870) ingested per capita.
In 1958, Cuba is the second country in the world to broadcast a television broadcast in color.
In 1958, Cuba was the country in Latin America with the largest number of cars (160,000, one for every 38 inhabitants). It was the country with the most household appliances per 1000 inhabitants and the country with the largest number of railroad kilometers per km2 and the second in the total number of radio devices.
Throughout the 1950s, Cuba held the second and third place in hospital admissions per capita in Latin America, ahead of Italy and more than double that of Spain.
In 1958, despite its small size and having only 6.5 million inhabitants, Cuba was the 29th economy in the world.
In 1959, Havana was the city in the world with the largest number of cinemas (358) beating New York and Paris, second and third, respectively.
And what happened after 1959?
The Revolution came… and there was never a “nail in” again!
(This post was sent to me by e-mail, and I do not know its author, but it needed to be read by us all!)
“Dialogue between Jean-Baptiste Colbert and Jules Mazarin during the reign of Louis XIV:
Colbert: To find money, there is a time when cheating [the taxpayer] is no longer possible. I would like, Mr. Superintendent, to explain to me how it is possible to continue spending when you are already in debt up to your neck …
Mazarin: If you are a simple mortal, of course, when you are covered with debts, you end up in prison. But the State … the State is different! You cannot send the state to prison. So, he continues to go into debt… All States do it!
Colbert: Oh yes? Do you think so? However, we need money. And how do we get it if we have already created all the taxes imaginable?
Mazarin: Others are created …
Colbert: But we can no longer impose more taxes on the poor.
Mazarin: Yes, it is impossible …
Colbert: What about the rich?
Mazarin: Neither are the rich. They would not spend more. A rich person who spends makes hundreds of poor people live.
Colbert: So how do we do it?
Mazarin: Colbert! You think like a cheese, like a sick man’s potty! There are a huge number of people between the rich and the poor: those who work dreaming of becoming rich and fearing they will become poor. It is to these that we must impose more taxes, more and more, always more! Those, the more we take from them the more they will work to make up for what we took from them… It is an inexhaustible reservoir…. ”
This climb, in July 1917, was celebrated in the history of our city.
Two Galician acrobats, father and son, named D. José and D. Miguel Puertullano, to promote a brand of biscuits, climbed, without any security equipment, the 76 meters high that the tower has. Once up there, they did acrobatics on the cross that ends the tower. Before they had drank tea accompanied by such biscuits, and dropped advertising papers, part that is not seen in this little film. Below, a huge crowd was watching all this. To show you this adventure we have a video of about 8 minutes, made from the film at the time, by Raul de Caldevilla, unfortunately without original sound. I draw attention to the way the acrobats are dressed. Pants, shirt and even a tie!
Look at the tranquility of these artists. No ropes or protection net. The basbaques, down here, waited for the fall, and were left without that part of the show.
The Clérigos Church with its tower is the main monument in the city of Oporto. It was designed and built by Nicolao Nasoni in the 18th century.
In 1917, while this adventure was taking place, the Portuguese fought in the First World War, which would only end the following year.
Do not know the author of this text, but I thank him/her for this history sharing!