Climbing the Clérigos Tower in 1917

This climb, in July 1917, was celebrated in the history of our city.

Two Galician acrobats, father and son, named D. José and D. Miguel Puertullano, to promote a brand of biscuits, climbed, without any security equipment, the 76 meters high that the tower has.
Once up there, they did acrobatics on the cross that ends the tower. Before they had drank tea accompanied by such biscuits, and dropped advertising papers, part that is not seen in this little film.
Below, a huge crowd was watching all this.
To show you this adventure we have a video of about 8 minutes, made from the film at the time, by Raul de Caldevilla, unfortunately without original sound. I draw attention to the way the acrobats are dressed. Pants, shirt and even a tie!

Look at the tranquility of these artists. No ropes or protection net. The basbaques, down here, waited for the fall, and were left without that part of the show.

The Clérigos Church with its tower is the main monument in the city of Oporto. It was designed and built by Nicolao Nasoni in the 18th century.

In 1917, while this adventure was taking place, the Portuguese fought in the First World War, which would only end the following year.

Do not know the author of this text, but I thank him/her for this history sharing!

http://www.historiadeportugal.info/historia-de-portugal/torre-dos-clerigos-cc/imagem-da-torre-dos-clerigos-12.jpg

Books worth gold

Collection of unique and exceptionally valuable books.

Incredible works, which today are worth real fortunes.

“Leicester Code”
Leonardo da Vinci’s “Leicester Code” was purchased in 1994 by Bill Gates for $30.8 million. This 72-page collection of scientific and philosophical writings is in perfect condition. It dates back to 1500 and has the peculiarity of having been written backwards, with a «specular» writing: a mirror is necessary to read the text.
“The Gospels of Henri Le Lion”.
Commissioned by Henri Le Lion of the Helmarshausen monastery, these gospels were drawn up and carefully illustrated in 1188. The work is sumptuous, testifying to the richness of the monastic art of miniatures and piety of the 12th century. It was bought in 1983 for 8.15 million pounds and its value is currently estimated at more than 16 million euros.
“Birds of America”
John James Audubon, a French-American painter and naturalist, loved birds. Starting in 1820, he dedicated himself to touring the United States and drawing all the species he encountered. His work consists of 435 watercolors painted in the “double-elephant” format (98x76cm). In December 2010, a complete collection of originals sold at “Sotheby’s” for $11.5 million.
“Shakespeares Comedies, Histories & Tragedies”
This is the first compilation of Shakespeare’s plays, printed in folio format. The book consists of 36 pages and was published 7 years after the death of the writer, by two of his close friends. One of the 40 complete copies cataloged was sold for $5.6 million dollars at “Sotheby’s”, but specialists estimate its value at more than 16 million euros.
“Gutenberg’s Bible”
Titanic work by Johannes Gutenberg: the printing of the “42-line Bible” was a technological feat. Premier printed text in Europe thanks to mobile signs, perfectly calibrated thanks to the use of ligatures and spaces reserved for miniatures. An original copy was bought for $5.4 million dollars in 1987 but the most beautiful copies are estimated at more than 20 million euros.
“The Canterbury Tales”
The 24 stories that make up this work by Geoffrey Chaucer relate the stay of a group of pilgrims on their way to the shrine of Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral. Written in verse in 1478, the text is profusely illustrated with miniatures. An original copy was bought for $7 million at auction.
“Les Liliacées”
This incredible work “in folio” supposed its author Pierre-Joseph Redouté’s is a meticulous work of observation of liliaceae during several years. The 480 plates were completed in 1802 in the garden of the Malmaison (of the Empress Josephine). They caught the attention of Napoleon, who commissioned several dozen copies for museums in France. It was acquired in 1985 for about $5 million.
“Vita Christi, Life of Christ and the Virgin”
It was completed to become a rosary and a devotional volume. The lighting system is handwritten on parchment. It is one of the most beautiful 12th century productions ever sold. Its 57 illustrations give it a beauty and intensity of colors unique to religious works. It was acquired by German collector Jörn Gunther in 2007 for $3.5 million.
“The Tales of the Bard Beedle”
Written by the author of Harry Potter, it is a compendium of little fables that supposedly all the little witches of Poudlard knew each other.
J. K. Rowling made 7 copies by hand, adorned in the paste with semi-precious stones. One of them was auctioned for a charity stock and purchased by Amazon.com for £1.95 million.
“The 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution”
It officially abolished slavery in the country at the time of its adoption, on December 6, 1865. The text, which takes the Principles of the proclamation of the emancipation of Abraham Lincoln, is considered one of the founding acts in US history. . It was auctioned for $1.9 million.
“The Book of Urizen”
William Blake was a poet and painter, which allowed him to transcend lyricism
of his works thanks to the image. Urizen’s first book is a literary gem.
The strength of the text, a kind of pagan Genesis, and the unique composition of its pages continues to attract collectors. The work dates from 1794 and was sold at a price of $2.3 million.
First issue of “Action Comics” in 1938.
In this first issue the adventures of Superman are published. Sold then for 10 cents, it is today the prized treasure of comic book collectors.
In March 2010, it was auctioned for $1.5 million.
“Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland”
Lewis Carroll’s book is indisputably a work of art in world literature. The book market experts were not mistaken as an original 1865 edition was loaned for the sum of $1.4 million in 1998. The first edition, printed with 2,000 copies, is extremely unique and superbly illustrated by John Tenniel.
“Mercator’s Atlas”
The geographer and mathematician Gerardus Mercator was the first cartographer who imagined a system of projection of the Earth’s surface on a cylinder tangent to the equator (method still in force). His atlas, printed in 1569, got him some trouble with the Church and was bought for $800,000 at Sotheby’s.
“Tamerlane and other poems”
It is the first work published by Edgar Allan Poe in 1827, when he was 13 years old. If Poe admits the poor quality of his texts, collectors waged a fierce struggle to acquire it. The happy buyer paid out $663,000.
“El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote De La Mancha”
Written by Cervantes and published in 1605, it is the greatest classic book of literature in the Spanish language of all time. It is also the most expensive novel in history. An original copy was purchased for $ 1.5 million in 1989. Today it is estimated at more than $ 2.5 million.
“Ptolemy Geography”
Made around the year 150 AD, it has enormous precision errors but also offers us the immense knowledge accumulated by Greek science, such as the sphericity of the Earth and the existence of a southern continent. The manual will have a great influence among Renaissance cartographers. As a rare book, it sold for $3.5 million in 2006.
“From Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium”
Revolutionary work par excellence changed the vision of Europeans, describing a universe centered around the sun. Printed in 1543, Copernicus’s scientific writings immediately sparked violent protests from the Church, and the text was long viewed as subversive. It was bought in 2008 for $2 million.

Original based on PPT by doucetentacion@gmail.com and https://www.linternaute.com/livre/magazine/1054428-les-livres-les-plus-chers-de-l-histoire/1054430-l-evangeliaire-de-henri-le-lion.

Mystery of History

A History teacher asks if he or she can explain this …

… but I don’t think they can do it.

Abraham Lincoln was elected to Congress in 1846.
John F. Kennedy was elected to Congress in 1946.

Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860.
John F. Kennedy was elected President in 1960.

Both were very concerned with, above all, civil rights.
Both of their wives lost children while they inhabited the white house.

Both Presidents were murdered on a Friday.
Both Presidents were shot in the head.

And now it becomes more strange:

Lincoln’s secretary was named Kennedy,

Kennedy’s secretary was named Lincoln.

Both were murdered by someone from the southern states.
Both Presidents were succeeded by a southern man named Johnson.

Andrew Johnson, who succeeded Lincoln, was born in 1808.
London Johnson, who succeeded Kennedy, was born in 1908.

John Wilkes Booth, who murdered Lincoln, was born in 1839…
Lee Harvey Oswald, who murdered Kennedy, was born in 1939…

Both assassins were known by their 3 names.
Both of their names consisted of 15 letters.

And now, hold on:
Lincoln was murdered in a theater called “Ford”
Kennedy was murdered in a Lincoln brand car made by “Ford”

Lincoln was murdered in a theater and his murderer ran to a warehouse to hide.
Kennedy was murdered from a warehouse and his murderer fled to a theater and hid there.

Booth and Oswald were murdered before their lawsuit.

And here’s the icing on the cake….

1 week before Lincoln was murdered, he was in Monroe, Maryland
1 week before Kennedy was murdered, he was with Marilyn Monroe.

Who researched all this?

Amazing:
1) Fold a $20 bill in two parts…

2) Fold it again and take care to fold it exactly as in the image below:

3) Fold the other part as it is here:

4) Now turn it over…

What a coincidence! A simple geometric fold of a $20 dollar bill reveals a catastrophe, visible on all $20 dollar bills !!!

Coincidence?

Well, you decide…
If this was still not enough, this is what you saw:
First: the burning Pentagon…

Then, the Twin Towers…

And look here … !!!

Three incidental disasters on a $20 dollar bill?
Disaster 1 (Pentagon)
Disaster 2 (Twin Towers)
Disaster 3 (Osama) ???

And it gets even better: 11 + 9 = $20 !!
(9/11 = September 11, the day of the attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon)

Strange, huh?

This is a history lesson, which people don’t mind reading!

Does anyone know what Pathé was in the city of Oporto?

Pathé was an open-air theater, located where the later Batalha cinema came to do.

The first silent films in the city were shown at Pathé. It was the only cinema.

At the beginning of the XXth century people said: “Let’s go to Pathé!”, instead of saying, let’s go to the cinema.

The projectionist for the films was Mr. César, best known as Cesinha.

Pathé-Baby was a 9.5 mm film format that, unlike other formats (8, 16, 35 or 70 mm), did not have the drag holes on the side of the film, but in the middle, between each two images.

As a result, the image size was almost equal to 16 mm, as it took advantage of the entire width of the film.

It had the disadvantage that the drag hook easily left the site and damaged the film. To minimize this, some projectors had two drag hooks, which “caught” two successive holes.

The format was relatively popular, and there were even representatives of the brand. In Oporto, it was in Santa Catarina, not far from Via Catarina, but on the opposite side.

Best greetings for everyone, especially those from Oporto or in some way connected to INVICTA.

Film from Oporto and Minho about 100 years old.

Message received via email. Thanks to the anonymous who wrote it.

Rare historical photographs

The man who denied giving the Nazi salute, 1936
Nikola Tesla in his laboratory
Tombs of a Catholic woman and her Protestant husband separated by a wall, The Netherlands, 1888
Austrian boy in pure happiness receiving new shoes during World War II
Race organizers try to stop Kathrine Switzer from competing in the Boston marathon. She was the first woman to finish the race in 1967
Seal intact at Tutankhamun’s tomb, 1922 (3245 years untouched)
Painting the Eiffel Tower, 1932
First morning after Sweden changed driving from left to right, 1967
Animals used as part of medical therapy, 1956
The kiss of life to the colleague after he touched the high voltage cable, 1967
Annette Kellerman promotes the right of women to wear a one-piece swimsuit, 1907. She was arrested for indecency.
Cave in an iceberg photographed during the British Antarctic expedition, 1911
106-year-old Armenian woman, protector of the home, 1990
Albert Einstein, Summer 1939, Long Island, NY
Brooklyn Bridge painter, 1914
The last known photo of the Titanic on the water, 1912
Disneyland employees cafeteria in 1961
Huge crowds gather at Woodstock Rock Festival, 1969
Women delivering ice, 1918
Hannah Stilley born in 1746, photographed in 1840
The Beatles play for 18 people at the Club de Aldershot, 1961. Superstars a year and a half later.
The first tube at Edgware Road station, London, 1862
Customers of a music store in London, 1955
Woman with gas-resistant stroller, England, 1938
Elvis in the Army, 1958
Cages used for babies to ensure that they received sunlight and fresh air in an apartment building, 1937
Measurement of swimsuits, to see if they were too short, if applicable, women would receive a fine, 1920
Salvador Dali kisses Raquel Welch’s hand after finishing his famous portrait, 1965
Girl with doll sitting in front of her bombed house, London, 1940
French resistance member George Ciegos, smiling at the German firing squad, 1944
“Daddy’s waiting for me” by Claude P. Dettloff in New Westminster, Canada, 1940
Sailor kissing a nurse in Times Square, August 1945
Audrey Hepburn shopping with a deer as a mascot, Beverly Hills, CA, 1958
Three men run the marathon at the first modern Olympic Games, 1896
Sale of the afternoon newspaper with the news of the sinking of the Titanic the night before, April 16, 1912
“4 children for sale inquire within”, 1948
Norway receives its first shipment of bananas, 1905

Based on the amazing PowerPoint: https://slideplayer.com.br/slide/8959365/

“Braga: a cidade que deu o nome aos dias da semana na Língua Portuguesa

Os nomes dos dias da semana na Língua Portuguesa são muito diferentes dos outros idiomas. O motive? Pod perguntar à cidade de Braga.

Já se indagou alguma vez porque motivo o nome dos dias da semana na Língua Portuguesa são tão diferentes do resto dos outros idiomas?

Monday (em inglês) ou Lunes (em espanhol) significam “dia da Lua”. Mas na Língua Portuguesa diz-se “segunda-feira”. Pouco original, certo? A culpa é do antigo bispo de Braga, São Martinho de Dume, que além de mudar o nome dos dias da semana também queria mudar o nome dos planetas.

Os nomes dos dias da semana em português são mesmo muito pouco originais. Para o resto dos países ocidentais, os nomes dos dias da semana são uma referência aos deuses patronos de cada dia. Nas línguas latinas, estes dias derivam dos deuses romanos referentes aos astros conhecidos da época.

No original temos: Solis dies, o dia do Sol (daí o “Sunday”): a semana deveria começar com um dia de descanso, de culto aos deuses, e ao maior astro, o Sol, para serem abençoados pelos dias que se seguiriam; Lunae dies, o dia da Lua: segundo astro mais importante para o culto romano, o segundo dia da semana era dedicado à lua, e a sua influência no plantio e nas marés; Martis dies, dia de Marte: para o deus da guerra, um dia dedicado à prática das artes da guerra e dos exercícios físicos e desportivos; Mercurii dies, dia de Mercúrio: dia dedicado ao patrono dos comerciantes e viajantes; Jovis dies, o dia de Júpiter: o “Deus Pai”, Júpiter (Diu Pater) era o criador da natureza, das chuvas, das colheitas, portanto este dia era dedicado à natureza e seu criador; Veneris dies, o dia de Vénus: o astro mais brilhante do céu era também o símbolo do ouro, e por isso este dia foi dedicado a Vénus, pois era neste dia que os soldados romanos recebiam seus pagamentos, em ouro; Saturni dies, o dia de Saturno: ao deus do tempo foi dedicado o último dia da semana (septi mana – sete manhãs), e era um dia dedicado à reflexão, descanso e às ceias com a família.

Com a influência da igreja católica no império romano, após o Concílio de Nicéia, no século IV, o sétimo dia da semana passou a ser dedicado ao Shabbatt judeu, o dia em que Deus descansou de sua criação; e o primeiro dia da semana passou a ser dedicado ao próprio Senhor Jesus, para se combater o culto ao Senhor Sol, tornando-se assim, o dia do Senhor, o Dies Dominica.

Essa primeira modificação só influenciou a Europa latina. Na Europa germânica os nomes dos dias dedicados a Saturno e ao sol permaneceram, como podemos ver no inglês: Saturday e Sunday.

Porém, foi São Martinho de Dume, bispo de Braga e conhecido por apóstolo dos suevos, que, dirigindo o Primeiro Concílio de Braga, que durou pelos anos de 561 a 563, seguindo uma orientação notória de São Cesário, bispo de Arles, modificou por completo os nomes dos dias da semana.

Os concílios de Braga foram concílios regionais e só abrangiam as decisões da Igreja dentro de seu território de influência, que era justamente a geografia do que veio a ser mais tarde Portugal.

É por esta razão que somente na região do que veio depois a ser Portugal se seguiu a tradição bracarense dos nomes dos dias da semana modificados pela Igreja. No resto da Europa católica essa orientação não foi seguida pelos outros episcopados.

Tanto que permaneceu o mesmo equivalente da antiga nomenclatura romana nas línguas latinas (apenas com a excepção do primeiro e do sétimo dia, já modificados no Concílio de Nicéia), como podemos notar no espanhol (Lunes, Martes, Miércoles, Jueves, Viernes, Sábado, Domingo), no francês (Lundi, Mardi, Mercredi, Jeudi, Vendredi, Samedi, Dimanche), e no italiano (Lunedi, Martedi, Mercoledì, Giovedi, Venerdì, Sabato, Doménica), por exemplo.

São Martinho, combatendo o paganismo romano nas nomenclaturas conhecidas, substituiu os antigos nomes romanos por dias que deveriam ser dedicados às festas litúrgicas.

Assim, foi decidido que a partir deste Concílio de Braga, naquela região, os dias deveriam ser denominados como: Dominica dies, Feria Secunda, Feria Tertia, Feria Quarta, Feria Quinta, Feria Sexta, Sabbatum. No latim, Feria tinha o sentido de Festa (no caso, festa litúrgica, de onde veio o nome Feriado).

Com o passar dos anos, através do desenvolvimento da língua portuguesa, a palavra Feria foi substituída pela palavra Feira, porque Feira era o dia do mercado. Assim, os nomes dos dias da semana em português tiveram sua actual modificação: Domingo, Segunda-feira, Terça-feira, Quarta-feira, Quinta-feira, Sexta-feira, Sábado (A Terça-feira não foi nomeada como Terceira-feira porque seguiu a pronúncia latina do seu original Tertia).

Por fim, quando Portugal se tornou um Estado unificado, a tradição já passava de meio século, tradição esta repassada aos países que Portugal colonizou, como é o caso do Brasil. A conclusão é que, apesar de São Martinho ter sido um Doutor da Igreja de importância fundamental para a união das regiões que formaram Portugal, infelizmente deixou como legado também um significado medíocre para os dias da semana, na quinta língua mais falada do mundo.”

Fonte: https://www.vortexmag.net/braga-a-cidade-portuguesa-que-deu-o-nome-aos-dias-da-semana/